pediatric | Sharp Abdominal Pain - Stomach, Upper, Lower, Right, Left Side Pain


Acute Abdominal Pain Children

What would cause a child to be screaming with lower abdominal pain but be fine 30 mins later?

My 10 year old son woke me up this morning screaming in pain! He was so distressed that I nearly called an ambulance. I gave him some ibuprofen and called NHS DIRECT. By the time they called me back 30 mins later he was fine and comfortable. What could have caused such acute pain? He had no temperature, no vomiting or diarrhoea,

He showed me where the pain was, it was low down, on the left side and just above his hip bone. When I pressed the spot he really screamed!

Hi there,

Sounds like a colicky tummy to me. I would take him to have it checked if it continues just to be on the safe side, but I doubt it to be anything out of the ordinary. If it was his appendix, the pain would be low down on his right side and could also be around his navel. He would also likely to have a raised temp and be vomiting.

Just another thought, he couldn’t have pulled the muscles in that area could he, as that could cause the pain you describe.

I hope he continues to be fine and comfortable. There’s nothing like kids for causing us worries is there :-)

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Abdominal Pain Pediatric

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Pediatric Abdominal Pain Assessment

Robotic surgery


In 1985 a robot, the PUMA 560, was used to place a needle for a brain biopsy using CT guidance. In 1988, the PROBOT, developed at Imperial College London, was used to perform prostatic surgery. The ROBODOC from Integrated Surgical Systems was introduced in 1992 to mill out precise fittings in the femur for hip replacement. Further development of robotic systems was carried out by Intuitive Surgical with the introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System and Computer Motion with the AESOP and the ZEUS robotic surgical system. (Intuitive Surgical bought Computer Motion in 2003; ZEUS is no longer being actively marketed.)

The da Vinci Surgical System comprises three components: a surgeon console, a patient-side robotic cart with 4 arms manipulated by the surgeon (one to control the camera and three to manipulate instruments), and a high-definition 3D vision system. Articulating surgical instruments are mounted on the robotic arms which are introduced into the body through cannulas. The surgeon hand movements are scaled and filtered to eliminate hand tremor then translated into micro-movements of the proprietary instruments. The camera used in the system provides a true stereoscopic picture transmitted to a surgeon’s console. The da Vinci System is FDA cleared for a variety of surgical procedures including surgery for prostate cancer, hysterectomy and mitral valve repair, and is used in more than 800 hospitals in the Americas and Europe. The da Vinci System was used in 48,000 procedures in 2006 and sells for about $1.2 million.[citation needed] The new da Vinci HD SI released in April, 2009 currently sells for $1.75 million. The first robotic surgery took place at The Ohio State University Medical Center in Columbus, Ohio under the direction of Dr. Robert E. Michler, Professor and Chief, Cardiothoracic Surgery.<McConnell PI, Schneeberger EW, Michler RE. History and development of robotic cardiac surgery. Problems in General Surgery 2003;20:62-72.>

In 1997 a reconnection of the fallopian tubes operation was performed successfully in Cleveland using ZEUS.

In May 1998, Dr. Friedrich-Wilhelm Mohr using the Da Vinci surgical robot performed the first robotically assisted heart bypass at the Leipzig Heart Centre in Germany.

On 2 September 1999, Dr. Randall Wolf and Dr. Robert Michler performed the first robotically assisted heart bypass in the USA at The Ohio State University.

In October 1999 the world’s first surgical robotics beating heart coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) was performed in Canada by Dr. Douglas Boyd and Dr. Reiza Rayman using the ZEUS surgical robot.

In 2001, Prof. Marescaux used the “Zeus” robot to perform gall bladder surgery on a patient in Strasbourg, France while in New York.

In September 2001, Dr. Michel Gagner used the Zeus robotic system to perform a cholecystectomy on a woman in Strasbourg, France while in New York.

In May 2006 the first AI doctor conducted unassisted surgery on a 34 year old male to correct heart arrythmia. The results were rated as better than an above average human surgeon. The machine had a database of 10,000 similar operations and so in the words of its designers was “more than qualified to operate on any patient”. The designers believe that robots can replace half of all surgeons within 15 years.[citation needed]

In February 2008, Dr. Mohan S. Gundeti of the University of Chicago Comer Children’s Hospital performed the first robotic pediatric neurogenic bladder reconstruction. The operation was performed on a 10-year-old girl.

In January 2009, Dr. Todd Tillmanns reported results of the largest multi-institutional study on the use of da-Vinci robotic surgical system in gynecologic oncology and included learning curves for current and new users as a method to assess acquisition of their skills using the device.

In January 2009, the first all robotic-assisted kidney transplant was performed at Saint Barnabas Medical Center in Livingston, New Jersey by Dr. Stuart Geffner. The same team performed eight more fully robotic-assisted kidney transplants in the next six-month period.

In September 2009, TAMPA, Fla. – A woman whose husband died after a doctor using a surgical robot accidentally cut two of his main blood vessels is suing the hospital. Al Greenway’s widow is suing St. Joseph’s Hospital, saying it’s at fault for her husband’s October 2002 death. Brenda Greenway says hospital administrators allowed doctors inexperienced with the $1 million robot to perform her husband’s surgery, which was to remove a cancerous kidney. Greenway, a 53-year-old Desert Storm veteran and Plant High School science teacher, died when the surgeon cut his abdominal aorta, which provides blood to the abdominal organs and legs, and the inferior vena cava, the neighboring vein that returns that blood to the heart.


General surgery

Many general surgical procedures can now be performed using the state of the art robotic surgical system. In 2007, the. University of Illinois at Chicago medical team, lead by Prof. Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti, performed the world’s first ever robotic pancreatectomy and also the Midwests fully robotic Whipple surgery, which is the most complicated and demanding procedure of the abdomen. In April 2008, the same team of surgeons performed the world’s first fully minimally invasive liver resection for living donor transplantation, removing 60% of the patient’s liver, yet allowing him to leave the hospital just a couple of days after the procedure, in very good condition. Furthermore the patient can also leave with less pain than a usual surgery due to the four puncture holes and not a scar by a surgeon .

Cardiothoracic surgery

Robot-assisted MIDCAB and Endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB) surgeries are being performed with the da Vinci system. Mitral valve repairs and replacements have been performed. East Carolina University, Greenville (Dr W. Randolph Chitwood), Saint Joseph’s Hospital, Atlanta (Dr Douglas A. Murphy), and Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati (Dr J. Michael Smith) have popularized this procedure and proved its durability with multiple publications. Since the first robotic cardiac procedure performed in the USA in 1999, The Ohio State University, Columbus (Dr. Robert E. Michler, Dr. Juan Crestanello, Dr. Paul Vesco) has performed CABG, mitral valve[[, esophagectomy, lung resection, tumor resections, among other robotic assisted procedures and serves as a training site for other surgeons. In 2002, surgeons at the Cleveland Clinic in Florida (Dr. Douglas Boyd and Kenneth Stahl) reported and published their preliminary experience with minimally invasive “hybrid” procedures. These procedures combined robotic revascularization and coronary stenting and further expanded the role of robots in coronary bypass to patients with disease in multiple vessels.

Cardiology and electrophysiology

The Stereotaxis Magnetic Navigation System (MNS) has been developed to increase precision and safety in ablation procedures for arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation while reducing radiation exposure for the patient and physician, and the system utilizes two magnets to remotely steerable catheters. The system allows for automated 3-D mapping of the heart and vasculature, and MNS has also been used in interventional cardiology for guiding stents and leads in PCI and CTO procedures, proven to reduce contrast usage and access tortuous anatomy unreachable by manual navigation. Dr. Andrea Natale has referred to the new Stereotaxis procedures with the magnetic irrigated catheters as “revolutionary.”

The Hansen Medical Sensei robotic catheter system uses a remotely operated system of pulleys to navigate a steerable sheath for catheter guidance. It allows precise and more forceful positioning of catheters used for 3-D mapping of the heart and vasculature. The system provides doctors with estimated force feedback information and feasible manipulation within the left atrium of the heart. The Sensei has been associated with mixed acute success rates compared to manual, commensurate with higher procedural complications, longer procedure times but lower fluoroscopy dosage to the patient.

Gastrointestinal surgery

Multiple types of procedures have been performed with either the Zeus or da Vinci robot systems, including bariatric surgery.


Robotic surgery in gynecology is one of the fastest growing fields of robotic surgery. This includes the use of the da Vinci surgical system in benign gynecology and gynecologic oncology. Robotic surgery can be used to treat fibroids, abnormal periods, endometriosis, ovarian tumors, pelvic prolapse, and female cancers. Using the robotic system, gynecologists can perform hysterectomies, myomectomies, and lymph node biopsies. The need for large abdominal incisions is virtually eliminated.

Robot assisted hysterectomies and cancer staging are being performed using da Vinci robotic system. The University of Tennessee, Memphis (Dr. Todd Tillmanns, Dr. Saurabh Kumar), Northwestern University (Dr. Patrick Lowe), Aurora Health Center (Dr. Scott Kamelle), West Virginia University (Dr. Jay Bringman) and The University of Tennessee, Chattanooga (Dr. Donald Chamberlain) have extensively studied the use of robotic surgery and found it to improve morbidity and mortality of patients with gynecologic cancers. They have also for the first time reported robotic surgery learning curves for current and new users as a method to assess acquisition of their skills using the device.


Several systems for stereotactic intervention are currently on the market. MD Robotic’s NeuroArm is the world first MRI-compatible surgical robot.


The ROBODOC system was released in 1992 by Integrated Surgical Systems, Inc. which merged into CUREXO Technology Corporation. Also, The Acrobot Company Ltd. sells the “[[Acrobot Sculptor==”, a robot that constrains a bone cutting tool to a pre-defined volume. Another example is the CASPAR robot produced by U.R.S.-Ortho GmbH & Co. KG, which is used for total hip replacement, total knee replacement and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.


Surgical robotics has been used in many types of pediatric surgical procedures including: tracheoesophageal fistula repair, cholecystectomy, nissen fundoplication, morgagni’s hernia repair, kasai portoenterostomy, congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair, and others. On January 17, 2002, surgeons at Children’s Hospital of Michigan in Detroit performed the nation’s first advanced computer-assisted robot-enhanced surgical procedure at a children’s hospital.

The Center for Robotic Surgery at Children’s Hospital Boston provides a high level of expertise in pediatric robotic surgery. Specially-trained surgeons use a high-tech robot to perform complex and delicate operations through very small surgical openings. The results are less pain, faster recoveries, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, and happier patients and families.

In 2001, Children’s Hospital Boston was the first pediatric hospital to acquire a surgical robot. Today, surgeons use the technology for many procedures and perform more pediatric robotic surgeries than any other hospital in the world. Children’s Hospital physicians have developed a number of new applications to expand the use of the robot, and train surgeons from around the world on its use.


The CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System uses image-guidance and computer controlled robotics to treat tumors throughout the body by delivering multiple beams of high-energy radiation to the tumor from virtually any direction.


The da Vinci robot is commonly used to remove the prostate gland for cancer, repair obstructed kidneys, repair bladder abnormalities and remove diseased kidneys. New minimally invasive robotic devices using steerable flexible needles are currently being developed for use in prostate brachytherapy. A few leading urologists in the field of robotic urological surgery are Drs. David Samadi, Ashutosh Tewari, Mani Menon, Peter Schlegel, Douglas Scherr and Darracott Vaughan.

Miniature robotics

As scientists seek to improve the versatility and utility of robotics in surgery, some are attempting to miniaturize the robots. For example, the University of Nebraska Medical Center has led a multi-campus effort to provide collaborative research on mini-robotics among surgeons, engineers and computer scientists.

See also


Vattikuti Urology Institute



Da Vinci Surgical System

Remote Magnetic Navigation

Zeus Surgical System

Robot-assisted heart surgery

Surgical Segment Navigator

Computer assisted surgery

Bone segment navigation

Stereolithography (medicine)

Robotic prostatectomy

Patient registration

Robot-assisted heart surgery


^ FDA: Computer-Assisted Surgery: An Update

^ VMW Monthly



^ Autonomous Robotic Surgeon performs surgery on first live human

^ Robot surgeon carries out 9 hour operation by itself

^ Surgeons perform world’s first pediatric robotic bladder reconstruction

^ New Robot Technology Eases Kidney Transplants, CBS News, June 22, 2009 – accessed July 8, 2009

^ Ahmed K; Khan MS; Vats A; Nagpal K; Priest O; Patel V; Vecht JA; Ashrafian H; et al. (Oct 2009). Current status of robotic assisted pelvic surgery and future developments. Int J Surg. 7:431-440

^ TCAI Press Release, March 3rd, 2009:

^ Natale et al., Lessons Learned and Techniques Altered Following Early Experience of the Hansen Robotic System During Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation, Poster Session II, HRS 2008

^ Barnebei et al., Lahey Clinic, presented at HRS 2009: PO04-35 – Robotic versus Manual Catheter Ablation for Atrial Fibrillation

^ R. Liew, L. Richmond, V. Baker, F. Goromonzi, G. Thomas, M. Finlay, M. Dhinoja, M. Earley, S. Sporton, R. Schilling, National Heart Centre – Singapore – Singapore, Barts and the London NHS Trust – London – United Kingdom European Heart Journal ( 2009 ) 30 ( Abstract Supplement ), 910

^ ROBODOC history

^ Acrobot Sculptor

^ Siebert, W.; Mai, Sabine; Kober, Rudolf; Heeckt, Peter F. (2004-12-30). “Chapter 12 – Total knee replacement: robotic assistive technique”. in DiGioia, Anthony M.; Jaramaz, Branislav; Picard, Frederic et al.. Computer and robotic assisted hip and knee surgery. Oxford University Press. pp. 127156. ISBN 019850943X. 

^ Children’s Hospital Center for Robotic Surgery

^ UC Berkeley: Needle Steering

^ Johns Hopkins University: Needle Steering

^ Quick, Innovative Procedure Minimizes Prostate Incontinence After Prostatectomy

^ How is Prostate Cancer Detected?

^ The Robot Surgeon

^ Robot Provides Guiding Hand

^ ABC TV-Benefits of Robotic Surgery, retrieved may 7, 2009

^ Fox News TV- The Robot Is In, retrieved May 7, 2009

^ Robotic Assisted Prostatectomy, Retrieved May 7, 2009

^ New Scientist Magazine, January 2006


Monkman. G.J., S. Hesse, R. Steinmann & H. Schunk Robot Grippers – Wiley, Berlin 2007.

Fchtmeier. B., S. Egersdoerfer, R. Mai, R. Hente, D. Dragoi, G.J. Monkman & M. Nerlich – Reduction of femoral shaft fractures in vitro by a new developed reduction robot system “RepoRobo” – Injury – 35 ppSA113-119, Elsevier 2004.

Daniel Ichbiah. Robots : From Science Fiction to Technological Revolution.

Dharia SP, Falcone T. Robotics in reproductive medicine. Fertil Steril 84:1-11,2005.

Pott PP, Scharf H-P, Schwarz MLR, Today State of the Art of surgical Robotics, Journal of Computer Aided Surgery, 10,2, 101-132, 2005.

Lorincz A, Langenburg S, Klein MD. Robotics and the pediatric surgeon. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003 Jun;15(3):262-6.

Campbell A, Larenzo xR3Nz0x Jun. 14 1994

Categories: Surgery | Computer assisted surgery | Surgical robots | Telehealth | Medical informaticsHidden categories: NPOV disputes from February 2010 | All NPOV disputes | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2008 | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009
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By admin on September 25, 2010 | Most Popular
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Left Abdominal Pain Pediatric

Congenital and Pediatric Heart Surgery In India At Affordable Low Cost


Congenital and Pediatric Heart Disease

Heart diseases that are present at birth are called “congenital heart disease”. Congenital heart disease is a type of defect or malformation in one or more structures of the heart or blood vessels that occurs before birth. 

Some of these require no treatment as they are self correcting while others may require either minor or major reconstructive surgery of the heart.


Types of Congenital Heart Disease

Congenital heart disease changes the normal flow of blood through the heart because some part of the heart didn’t develop properly before birth.


Atrial septal defect(ASD) :

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in that septum. Atrial septal defects are one of the most common heart defects seen. When an atrial septal defect is present, blood flows through the hole primarily from the left atrium to the right atrium. This shunting increases the blood volume in the right atrium which means more blood flows through the lungs than would normally. If left untreated, atrial septal defect may cause problems in adulthood. These problems may include pulmonary hypertension (which is high blood pressure in the lungs), congestive heart failure (weakening of the heart muscle), atrial arrhythmias (which are abnormal rhythms or beating of the heart) and an increased risk of stroke.


Ventricular septal defect(VSD) :


Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a hole (defect) in the wall that separates the lower chambers of the heart. VSD is a congenital heart defect, which means that it is present at birth. In children with a VSD, blood usually flows through the defect from the left ventricle to the right ventricle. This causes extra blood (called volume overload) in the pulmonary arteries and lungs, and in the left atrium and left ventricle.


Atrioventricular canal defect :


Atrioventricular canal defect is a combination of several abnormalities in the heart present at birth (congenital). This defect includes a hole between the chambers of the heart and problems with the valves that regulate blood flow in the heart. Atrioventricular canal defect may also be called endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular septal defect.


Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) :

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a defect in which the temporary blood vessel connecting the left pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetal heart fails to close after birth. In the fetal heart, blood bypasses the lungs and gets oxygen from the placenta. But when the newborn’s lungs take over at birth, the body stops producing the chemicals that keep the ductus arteriosus open, and it closes naturally.


Aortic stenosis :


Stenosis means narrowing. Aortic stenosis is then a narrowing of the aortic valve or a narrowing of the aorta directly above (supravalvar) or below (subvalvar) the aortic valve.Normally, oxygen rich blood is pumped from the left ventricle, through the aortic valve and into the aorta. The aorta is the main artery that sends oxygen rich blood to the body. In aortic stenosis, it makes it very hard for the heart to pump blood to the body. Depending on the severity of the stenosis, open heart surgery may be needed to correct the defect.


Pulmonary stenosis


Pulmonic (pulmonary) stenosis is a narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening that increases resistance to blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. It is often present at birth (congenital) and thus affects children. 

Pulmonic stenosis, which is rare among adults, is usually due to a birth defect. When the stenosis is severe, it is usually diagnosed during childhood, because it produces a loud heart murmur. Severe pulmonic stenosis occasionally causes heart failure in children but often does not produce symptoms until adulthood. Symptoms include chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and fainting.


Ebsteins anomaly :


Ebstein’s anomaly is an abnormality in the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid valve separates the right atrium (the chamber that receives blood from the body) from the right ventricle (the chamber that pumps blood to the lungs).

In Ebstein’s anomaly, two leaflets of the tricuspid valve are displaced downward into the pumping chamber and the third leaflet is elongated and may be adherent to the wall of the chamber. These abnormalities cause the tricuspid valve to leak blood backwards into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts and as a result, the right atrium becomes enlarged and. If severe enough, congestive heart failure can result.


Coartication of the aorta :


Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of part of the aorta (the major artery leading the heart). It is a type of birth defect. Coarctation means narrowing.

Coarctation of the aorta is localized narrowing of the aortic lumen that results in upper-extremity hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, and malperfusion of the abdominal organs and lower extremities. Symptoms vary with the anomaly’s severity and range from headache, chest pain, cold extremities, fatigue, and leg claudication to fulminant heart failure and shock. A soft bruit may be heard over the coarctation site. Diagnosis is by echocardiography or by CT or MR angiography. Treatment is balloon angioplasty with stent placement, or surgical correction. .


Tetralogy of fallot :

Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common heart defect in children. The condition causes mixing of oxygen-poor blood with the oxygen-rich blood being pumped out of the heart and into the circulatory system of blood vessels.

The blood leaving the heart has less oxygen than is needed by the organs and tissues of the body, a condition called hypoxemia. Chronic (ongoing, long-term) lack of oxygen causes cyanosis, a bluish color of the skin, lips, and membranes inside the mouth and nose.


Tricuspid atresia :


Tricuspid atresia is a type of congenital heart disease in which the tricuspid heart valve is missing or abnormally developed. The defect blocks blood flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle. The tricuspid valve, normally located between the right atrium and the right ventricle, does not develop properly during pregnancy.

The signs and symptoms of tricuspid atresia depend on the presence and size of the ventricular septal defect, and the relationship of the great arteries. Most commonly, the great arteries are normally related and there is either no ventricular septal defect, or only a small ventricular septal defect.


Pulmonary atresia :

Pulmonary atresia is a rare congenital heart defect that usually presents itself along with other malformations such as VSD, tricuspid atresia, or complete transposition of the great arteries.

Pulmonary atresia is the failure of the pulmonary valve to develop with the normal development of the right ventricular chamber. Arterial pulmonary atresia is the failure of the development of the main pulmonary artery, pulmonary valve, or the right ventricular chamber. Normal right heart circulation is not possible. Circulation depends on the patent foramen ovale or ASD and a PDA.


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome :

This is a congenital heart defect in which there is under development of left side of the heart (left ventricle, aortic valve, and aorta). This is one of the most serious congenital heart defect which needs attention almost immediately after birth. In this defect no blood goes to the left side of the heart and therefore whole systemic circulation suffers. Life persists only on some connection between right side and left side either through a patent ductus or atrial septal defect. Spontaneous closure of this connection especially the ductus leads to severe circulatory embarrassment and death of the child.


Transposition of the great arteries :


Transposition of the great vessels is a congenital heart defect in which the 2 major vessels that carry blood away from the heart — the aorta and the pulmonary artery — are switched (transposed).

The heart is forming during the first 8 weeks of fetal development. The problem occurs in the middle of these weeks, allowing the aorta and pulmonary artery to be attached to the incorrect chamber.


Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) :


Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a relatively uncommon congenital defect representing approximately 2% of all congenital heart anomalies. TAPVC encompasses a group of anomalies in which the pulmonary veins connect directly to the systemic venous circulation via persistent splanchnic connections. This abnormality results from failed transfer, in the normal developmental sequence, of pulmonary venous drainage from the splanchnic plexus to the left atrium.


Persistent truncus arteriosus :


Truncus arteriosus is a rare congenital heart defect in which an opening is still present between the two ventricles (a ventricular septal defect), and the trunk of arteries, called the truncus arteriosus, is still undivided.

Symptoms associated with truncus arteriosus usually emerge in the first week of life. When an infant is born, there is a higher degree of pulmonary resistance, meaning it’s more difficult to pump blood into the lungs, which have not been used in utero. However, over the first week of life, as the child breaths, the resistance in the lungs gradually drops, changing the pressure gradient across the heart’s outflow. Today, physicians are more likely to recommend surgery within the first week of life, or as soon as feasible.


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By admin on September 2, 2010 | Most Popular
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Stomach Pain Pediatric

Common Medicine To Fight Bronchitis

An antibiotic is a medicine. Its main goal is to destroy or put off the development of bacteria. There are specified uses of antibiotic depending on the type of infection which inflicts you.

Bronchitis is a condition where the air passageway between your nose and lungs inflames. You can be afflicted with either acute or chronic bronchitis. The latter is the worst condition of bronchitis.

Some antibiotics can be good to treat not bronchitis itself, but the infections aggravating the symptoms. Medical findings state that antibiotics help in various ways such as lowering cough after one to two weeks or decreasing infections.

Here are some known antibiotics for treating both acute and chronic bronchitis:


Ampicillin can be used to treat infections developed due to acute bronchitis. If you are prescribed with this medication, make sure to take a glassful of water thirty minutes or two hours after taking your meal.

The possible general side effects include diarrhea, skin irritation, vomiting and soreness in the tongue or mouth.

Commonly, this type of medication is prescribed mostly for adults.


Trimethoprim is an antibiotic which is commonly used to treat infections in the respiratory tract. It can also be utilized to treat urine and ear infections.

Some common side effects of this medication may consist of diarrhea, stomach pain, swollen tongue, and in some instances failure to properly eat.

Some examples of this antibiotic are Septra or Bactrim.


Azithromycin is a type of antibiotic which is considered a good medication to treat some bacterial infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. It can be taken through tablet form or by oral suspension.

You may develop the following side effects upon taking this drug: ? Irritated stomach ? Loose bowel movement ? Vomiting ? Pain in the stomach and abdomen ? Skin irritations such as rashes which is usually minor

Some common brand names of this antibiotic are Aztrin, Zitromax, and Zmax.


Amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. You can take this drug with a capsule, a tablet (chewable for children), pediatric drops and liquid suspension.

An irritated stomach, vomiting and diarrhea may occur as side effects once you take amoxicillin. When you are not vigilant when taking this medication, severe side effects can happen such as seizures, atypical bleeding, and too much fatigue.

This type of antibiotic with brand names Amoxil, Trimox or Sumox is mostly prescribed to young children who are inflicted with bronchitis.

Chronic bronchitis is a serious illness which needs more vital types of treatment. However, these days some medical practitioner prescribes the use of some antibiotic such as Telithromycin.


Telithromycin is a type of drug primarily used to minister mild to moderate infections in the respiratory system. “Ketek” is the brand name of this antibiotic.

You can take this medication either as a tablet or through oral suspension. Some of the common side effects you may experience after taking this drug are: headache, lightheadedness, loose bowel movement, irritated stomach, blunt taste and unclear vision. Safety Precautions When Taking Antibiotics

There are safety precautions you need to undertake once you decide to take antibiotics if you are diagnosed with bronchitis:

1. Inform your physician about the severity of your bronchitis for him to determine the type of antibiotic you need to take. It is also pertinent to inform him if you have allergies with certain medicines or foods.

2. Do not stop taking the medication in the middle of your prescribed date of treatment. Not being able to complete the medication will not entirely destroy the infection.

3. If you miss a dose, you need to take it as soon as possible and return to your normal dosing schedule.

4. You need to take extra care if you know or think that you are pregnant. A consultation with your OB-GYNE is highly recommended.

5. When side effects arise, it is best to consult your physician. He may decide to stop the medication and give you other alternative treatment.

Most drugs have its advantages and disadvantages. A positive effect of antibiotics may be reflected if you or a caregiver properly follows drug instructions as well as your physician’s prescription and advice.

Bronchitis or the infections which come with the illness may be relieved with specific and prescribed antibiotics.

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Find tips about bone spur treatment and bone density screening at the Health And Nutrition website.

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